gender dynamics in patriarchal and matrilineal families

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There’s a lot of talk about the patriarchy in the West. Unfortunately, gender disparities in access to agricultural resources and services negatively impact their productivity and consequently, the food and nutrition security of their household (Peteman, Quisumbing, Behrman, & Nkonya, 2011). According to FGD and key informant sources, allocation/acquisition of farm land takes place within the first 3 months of the year (January to March). Tobacco smoke is one of the main causes of morbidity and premature mortality and children are more vulnerable than adults to the deleterious effects of tobacco smoke because of their smaller, immature and developing organs [1]. Although mothers in the study had significant limitations in restricting family men’s smoking, particularly their fathers-in-law’s smoking, they were not powerless. To further explore women’s management of home smoking, Lee [17] grouped the strategies used by pregnant women to reduce SHS exposure into ‘assertive action’ and ‘passive action’. It was also observed that this number was slightly higher than the sample size of 278 obtained using a 5% margin of error at 95% confidence level for the target population (965). Strategies used by mothers of young children in dealing with home smoking. © 2009 The Econometric Society While future smoking cessation interventions should support mothers in protecting their children from tobacco smoke, the interventions should also include other family members who are in a better power position, particularly the grandparents of the children, to reduce home smoking. The scale yielded a score between 0 and 12, with 12 indicating the greatest dietary diversity. �)Ff@;�8�O��f�qX�)e� ΜPv�`�w�a�B�K�s��%�6T��)Q�{V�Ď)�y ��V�iK�O�A�G��Uu�6��s���֗���K�B������`Js�+^2e����0�����b{ѺL�ڧ~���� �Ɛ���=j�J@֔�Q��}ytd�o�!z(�l��@���Rp�(f�tp/��p1��/����Ъ�-�����2�;T��b�[m6�-AmdȊ�HJRǮ�c�>�'�%��i��P�RtD� ��n#5�=R���G��@�s�1�8x�q�wNj�Ԗ�ZR�YIak%I>;4��|[�/�y5��G�G�Jذ�H��8P �͟1�����Ey SP ���f�"��jGDo۩�^����G�5��8� m!i�N�_f���z�X�X��,˥���do���Mp�N-A�g��V��a���a:���2 The causes of malnutrition in Nigeria are numerous; they include poverty, food and nutrition insecurity, improper feeding and caring capacity, cultural factors, and economic and political structures. He also wrote some aspects of the methodology. Moderate to severe stunting and wasting, respectively, represent chronic and acute malnutrition, which could be attributed to poor infant and young child feeding, infections, and poor care practices by mothers and caregivers. x��Z_o�6_ ߁�r+�H�c��K/�n��Eq�ٴ��m���v����s_��nfH٢b�N��f#Q����p�ܳaQf�tZ���aY��G5c_�.��W?�M�>��O�"[�e��vq9b��wgW�%l2?yǙ8���18��N�yl�}8y��Ὗ����wcX�kw+7ٮ��Ƽ�+�q���ā˙�]!�,c��cg�P����%��n���9j��pѳ�۔�MB���}3�����N���8���=��c��������xx�&׷{ҹoQW&�+�M��f�0v#�EB��V���d�2_��I{~�]x�]���x��P�(y�A?�\��PGM�o�|� Data were also examined to explore gender relations (e.g. The World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF (2009) standardized MUAC nonstretch tape graduated in centimetres, marked in appropriate colours (green, yellow, and red) was used to measure the MUAC of the child. Matriarchy provides superior status to the women. The “0” (zero) cm mark was put on the midpoint of the upper arm. One unique aspect of these societies is that the Maasai represent a textbook example of a patriarchal society, whereas the Khasi are matrilineal. The Epi Info™ EpiNut module was used to convert anthropometric data into nutritional status indicators: weight for age, height for age, and weight for height. The observations focused on men’s smoking behaviours around young children in households and public places, mothers’ verbal and non-verbal responses to their children’s SHS exposure, men’s everyday smoking routines and the social contexts in which smoking occurred, practices related to purchasing cigarettes, such as sharing and gifting cigarettes, etc. The wife and her family are then responsible for decision-making that affects Guna men, such as how much support he is able to lend his own blood relatives. The Igbo traditional food system documented in four states in Southern Nigeria, Indigenous peoples' food systems: The many dimensions of culture, diversity and environment for nutrition and health, Inheritance and matriliny among the Ohafia Igbo: A study in cultural change, Understanding the complexities surrounding gender differences in agricultural productivity in Nigeria and Uganda, Global nutrition dynamics: The world is shifting rapidly toward a diet linked with non communicable diseases, Food security and nutrition: Linkages and complementarities, Women at the center: Life in a modern matriarchy, Introduction: The distinctive features of matrilineal descent groups. It has been reported that women's predominance in low‐yield and poorly remunerated subsistence agriculture significantly undermines household food and nutrition security (FAO, 2014). Future research should explore how to incorporate health information about risks of tobacco smoke and the culturally constructed gendered obligations (or virtues) so that the family can act as a collective unit to create a smoke-free household for their children. Despite significant changes in China, many women are not economically equal partners to men in contributions to family prosperity and maintain lower status in important family decisions and accesses to family resources [6, 8, 13, 14]. [36] found that maintaining harmonious relationships was critical to women’s self-protection in heterosexual relationships where women lack power. This period, in Ohafia, is known as the unwu season (period of scarcity/hunger). Observations of the researcher found men’s socializations were always related to cigarette smoking. Econometrica Supplement: Indigenous Peoples' Food Systems: Gender Roles, Biodiversity, and Food Security. Akanu men generally agree that the matrilineal system made men in the past “lazy” in training their children. Malnutrition has continued to be of public health significance in low‐ and middle‐income countries of the world, including Nigeria. Table 1 shows the socio‐demographic characteristics of the respondents and their households. Participation in the discussions, interviews, and anthropometric measurements was voluntary. Second, some individuals may not have been fully forthcoming due to negative attitudes in their family towards smoking around children. Generally, women feel they work more than the male folk, as expressed here: “Now women are working more than men. During the actual interview, the respondents were also asked these questions using a recall period of 30 days/4 weeks. There is a need to mainstream gender into agricultural programmes and policies. We bring the child to the shops and play with him for one hour [shops in the local areas would run till 10 pm] and then go home. Mosuo traditions are changing in the modern world. For example, one mother explained that her family sometimes talked about smoking during meal time and she would mention the health risks of smoking during the discussions. 7 0 obj For a stunting rate of 32.9%, the 2016 Global Nutrition Report ranked Nigeria 98th out of 132 countries, and for the prevalence of anaemia (48.5%) in women of reproductive age, Nigeria was ranked 172 out of 185 countries (Internation Food Policy Research Institution, 2016). In the third stage, households were picked randomly by selecting every twenty‐first household until the number needed per community was obtained. Gender specific (women empowerment and nutrition education) and sensitive interventions (provision of agricultural input, adoption of improved technology, and access to agricultural extension services) are needed. The principal investigator served as the moderator with the assistance of one coinvestigator conversant in the local dialect. Gender dynamics are something that cannot be consigned to one race or to one region of the world (Lorber 2005, pp. “Fathers will not send their children to school; they will refer them to their maternal relations, and if these maternal relations are poor, that will be the end of education for the child” (Elu woman). One way was to transmit their disapproval of smoking to the smokers through the children, as one mother of a 5-year-old boy explained: ‘My father-in-law sometimes smokes in front of my child. Although enhanced ventilation, such as opening doors or windows, could reduce the concentration of smoke and thus prevent or reduce irritations of the children caused by tobacco smoke, it might take some time to reduce the concentration.

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