A fascinating example that introduces innovative modes of dealing with the Holocaust in Hebrew literature is David Grossman’s novel See Under: Love (1986). One well-accepted view of this tension explains that these writings were a symptom of the fractures in the national consensus that dominated the Zionist narrative (one that excluded minorities and rejected diversity in favor of hegemonic themes and a coherent, homogeneous language) as a consequence of the collective trauma following the War of 1973, the radical change in the political map of Israel in 1977 and the War of 1982 (e.g., Hever, 2002; Shaked, 2006). Hebrew Studies: A Journal Devoted to Hebrew Language and Literature. In the way the poetic personas invoke the sights and voices of another place, and yet would never return there, Hoffmann’s literature itself becomes a medium of memory. Yeshurun’s poetry is written in Hebrew but it also incorporates fragments of Yiddish, Polish, Arabic and English into a hybrid tongue and unstable textures of language that reveal the unsolved tensions of cultural and political traditions, identity and territory. Feldman, 1992; Zerubavel, 1994; Shapira, 1997). This issue of exile and homeland becomes a dominant theme in the 1980s in the works of writers who sought to tell the life stories of Jews in Iran, Iraq, Egypt, Germany, Austria, France, or of immigrants of European or North-African descent in Israel. Indeed, war and the discourse of war have always been part of Israeli literature (e.g. While this literature contributed to the construction of a national identity, at the same time and along the similar lines, it has also called into question the binaries of good versus evil, friends versus enemies, Israelis versus Palestinians and Jews versus Arabs. 225-260). The Shock of Independence: Reverberations in Early Israeli Poetry. Born in Baghdad, he fled in 1948 to Iran, making his way to Israel a year later, where he worked for four years as an editor for Arabic-language dailies. B. Yehoshua, and Amos Oz. The question of language, of course, was not obvious, and the dispute between Yiddish and Hebrew (also called the “language war” that lasted until the 1940s) is an example of these tensions that were an integral part of political and cultural processes of self-understanding (Halkin, 2002). A Testimony to "The War After": Remembrance and its Discontent in Second Generation Literature. 7,984 sq. Yaakov Shabtai’s prose collection, Uncle Peretz Takes Off (1972), and particularly his novel, Past Continuous (1977), reconfigure and reveal the dissonances that the revolutionary vision of the collective - Zionism’s socialist ‘promise’ - is unable to resolve. Thus the “living-dead” figuration was transformed into a “national allegory” (Hever, 1999)—an image of a collective rebirth that confirmed the Zionist narrative. In this sense, it recalls how the Zionist enterprise with its cultural ramifications encompasses not only the ideal but also its failed implementations. Hebrew at that time was the language of holy scripture, the Torah and the language of prayer. He stayed there a few weeks, heard the survivors’ testimonies and witnessed the devastation. In exploring the history of Hebrew literature in Israel, this essay emphasizes the ambivalent moments and ambiguous interrelations that tend to challenge monolithic narratives and conventional categories. HELPS Word-studies 2474 Israḗl (transliterated from the OT term 3478 /Nazaréth , "Israel") – Israel; the elect-nation of God in the OT "consummated by the inclusion of Gentile believers in the NT to form the body of Christ" (cf. His prose is filled with urban spaces of alienation and isolation, and his literary characters include detached immigrants and relatives from Europe wandering in the workers’ community in Tel Aviv. Schwartz, Yigal. It reflects tensions between tradition and modern processes of secularization, between homeland and exile, hegemonic culture and the peripheries, as well as ethnicity and gender differences. H. N. Bialik and the Quest for Ethical Identity. Israel, the saved remnant – This is where things get a little tricky. (2003). Later, he joined the Lehi underground and fought in the IDF during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard UP. Hebrew, which became a language of poetry, stories and novels as well as a language of literary journals and daily newspapers in eastern and central Europe, soon began to play a central role in the formation of a secular national identity. Letters from Europe arrive also in Yehudith Hendel’s work. mi. Amos Oz wrote his first collection of stories (1966) around life in the kibbutz. J. M. Green Trans., Prooftext. The body of the son thus becomes an estranged site of medical experimentation and traumatic discourse, a combination of technological fantasies and national figurations that harbors the horrors of modern being. The work itself, however, did not reject the hegemonic Zionist narrative. The emergence of a new generation of writers born in pre-state Israel, natives raised in a Hebrew environment (the official language of the Yishuv), who participated in the War of 1948 and were later involved in political life, showed this strong linkage between the collective ethos and the literary creation. The Shema Yisrael is the source of Jewish longevity, it links the generations of Jewish life. Bialik was in favor. The history of Hebrew literature in Israel is actually made up of many “histories,” which can be traced back to literature written outside of Israel. Yehuda Amichai: The Making of Israel's National Poet. The interference with national, collective values based on heroic norms, confidence in the process of settling and subjugating the land and uncompromising readiness for self-sacrifice in the long process of internalizing the collective social and militaristic agenda is revealed in the work of S. Yizhar. Born in Bratislava and arriving in pre-state Israel in 1941, his poetry hovers between his home town in Europe and the Israeli kibbutz, between European landscapes and the sites of the new land and between Hebrew and German – his mother’s language. A different mode of response to the catastrophe can be found in the work of Dan Pagis, a poet of a younger generation who was born in Bukovina and interned in a concentration camp during World War II. They pose an alternative that cannot, however, be fulfilled as the narrator, a witness to identity processes, documents moments of distortion and deformation in the birth of the new, native body. In confronting cultural traditions and ideological experiments, he tells the story of musicians who emigrated from Germany in the 1930s to pre-state Israel. The Person, the Path, and the Melody: A Brief History of Identity in Israeli Literature. For example, The One Facing Us (1995) takes place in different countries and moves between languages, Arabic, French and English as they are incorporated in the Hebrew. The foreign location and sound transfigurations echo in the titles of Hoffman’s works: Katschen (1988), Bernhard (1989), The Christ of Fish (1991), Guttapercha (1993), The Schunra and the Schmetterling (2001), Curriculum Vitae (2007), among others.
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